Probate is the process by which a Last Will & Testament is declared valid. When an individual passes away the named executor of the Will must file a Petition, along with the original Will, with Surrogates Court in the county where the decedent resided. Included with the Petition, the Executor must satisfy certain requirements. One such requirement is to serve notice upon all lawful heirs of the decedent.
The heirs are asked to sign a Waiver of Process and Consent to Probate. By signing this form, the heir is consenting to the appointment of the Petitioning Executor – but is not forfeiting any rights to their inheritance. The lawful heirs are the closest relatives – starting with the spouse, children and grandchildren and if there are not any surviving then parents, siblings and nieces and nephews.
At the conclusion of the proceeding – after the Petition has been filed with the necessary Waiver and Consent forms – the Judge will appoint the Petitioning Executor as Executor. At this time, the Executor can collect the assets of the estate and distribute them according to the terms of the Will. Typically the process is not too difficult. However, there are situations where it may be important.
Disinheriting a child: During the probate process in New York, a disinherited child will still be asked to sign a waiver and consent form. Because the child is disinherited, it is unlikely they would sign the form. The attorney for the estate will be required to ask the Judge to serve that individual with a Citation. The citation would put the individual on notice that he has the right to appear in Court at a predetermined time. If the individual does not show up, they forfeit their rights to contest the estate. Because of these requirements, the entire process is extended and can last for over 6-12 months. Avoiding probate for New York residents is important if they are disinheriting a child. It will reduce the liklihood that the disinherited child will contest the Will. It will also make life much easier for the other heirs, saving them months of aggrevation and thousands of dollars in legal fees.
Property in Multiple States: Sometimes probate only occurs when the decedent owned property in New York and in another state. In fact, many of my clients own their home in Long Island and a winter home on Florida. When this occurs, the heirs are required to probate the estate in New York and Florida. The entire process will easily last for over 1 year. Further, because two probate proceedings are required, two attorneys would have to be hired, one on New York and the other in Florida. The time and costs associated with two probate proceedings are great reasons to speak with an Estate Planning Attorney in New York to discuss ways to avoid probate.
Second Marriages: Previously, I mentioned that probate proceedings require the inclusion of all lawful heirs. When passing away with a spouse and children, they are all considered lawful heirs. If you are in a second marriage and your will distributes your assets in a way that may upset either your spouse or children from a previous marriage, there is a very good chance that the probate process can be turned into a battleground between the survivors. With proper planning it is possible to avoid probate in these circumstances and make sure that your assets are distributed in accordance with your wishes.
Probate proceedings are not always difficult. However, in certain situations, it is advisable to seek the advice of counsel and learn how you can make life easier for your heirs. Though it is not a great commentary on our society, unfortunately, money changes people. Most family feuds occur when one family member has passed away and their estate needs to be administered. The probate process in New York is important because it requires all family members to be involved. However, this very requirement also makes the process difficult and expensive. If one of your estate planning goals is to ensure a smooth and inexpensive transition of assets upon your demise, it is advisable to avoid probate – especially in the situations described above.